1 Hughes JR, Gust SW, Skoog K, Keenan RM, Fenwick JW. Symptoms of tobacco withdrawal. A replication and extension. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1991 Jan;48(1):52-9. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1991.01810250054007. PMID: 1984762. (cravings, anxiety, poor concentration, increased appetite, irritability and restlessness).Fagerström KO, Schneider NG, Lunell E. Effectiveness of nicotine patch and nicotine gum as individual versus combined treatments for tobacco withdrawal symptoms. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1993;111(3):271-7. doi: 10.1007/BF02244941. PMID: 7870963. (cravings, poor concentration, increased appetite, irritabilty)DSM-5 criteria (anxiety, poor concentration, increased appetite, irritability, low mood, restlessness)
3 NICORETTE® Combination therapy provides 2 x greater odds of quitting vs monotherapy at 12 weeks. Kornitzer M, et al. Combined used of nicotine patch and gum in smoking cessation: a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Prev Med 1995; 24:41–47.
4 Tonnesen P et al. Higher dosage nicotine patches increase one year smoking cessation rates : results from the European CEASE trial. Eur Respir J 1999; 13: 238-246Shiffman S. Effect of nicotine lozenges on affective smoking withdrawal symptoms : secondary analysis of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Therapeutics 2008; 30(8): 1461-1475Nicotine Addiction in Britain. A report of the Tobacco Advisory Group of the Royal College of Physicians. 2000